Click here to download pdf of the full article (19 pgs, 2.7 mb)


Journal of the
Music & Entertainment Industry Educators Association
Volume 12, Number 1 (2012)

Music Entrepreneurs in the Twenty-First Century: A Case Study on the Career of Jay-Z

Leanne Perice

The MEIEA Journal occasionally features outstanding student papers. This undergraduate research paper was written by Leanne Perice, a recent graduate of Indiana University.


    A music mentor of mine once told me “overnight success” takes about seven years to transpire. While he may have been misguided a decade ago, to achieve artistic stardom today means breaking the norms and the boundaries of the past. The make-up of a contemporary music career has undergone fundamental changes over the past fifteen years. These changes are linked to the tremendous technological advancements that have shaped the music industry in recent decades. The main impacts can be observed in the new ways artists create, market, and brand themselves as well as the altered infrastructure of the record labels and the models they employ.

    To obtain success in the twenty-first century, artists need to acquire additional skills beyond creating art. When examining the careers of the top artists today, it is clear that entrepreneurship and artistry complement each other and are essential to building successful careers. Making albums and selling records is simply not enough.

Click here to download pdf of the full article (19 pgs, 2.7 mb)