Academic Papers 2 (Royal Salon D)
Paul Linden, Moderator
The Urbanization of
the Billboard Top 200 and Hot 100 Charts: How Soundscan Changed the Game
Chair of the Music Business/Management Department
College of Music
Resistance to Billboard’s recent incorporation of
digital download sales and streaming data along with radio to determine
weekly chart rankings on the Hot Country and R&B/Hip-Hop Song
charts, was to be expected. Uproar over the magazine’s changes to chart
methodology date back more than sixty years to its first publication of
the Hot 100, a weekly chart that determines the most popular singles in
America. However, the most controversial change occurred with the
publication’s 1991 decision to incorporate Soundscan data in
determining rankings on both the Top 200 Album and Hot 100 Singles
charts. While some experts predicted the change would alter the
make-up of specific genres of music appearing on the weekly monitors,
few had the foresight to project the significant increase in certain
types of music hitting the top of the charts after the alteration to
these most important measurements of popularity of American
music. Black music (R&B/Rap) and Country titles roared to the
top echelons of both charts immediately thereafter.
This paper will explore the severity of the change
and its effects on the marketing, production and business plan
decisions that emerged as a result thereof, and led to Black music
dominating the charts for the next twenty years.
The presentation will both explore the history of
Billboard’s determination to change its methods in 1991 and, through an
examination of both pre- and post-change data in charts, diagrams and
empirical evidence, investigate the resulting changes in both the
complexion of the artists and the content of popular music in the last
decade of the 20th and first decade of 21st centuries.
Perspectives on New Product Development in Large Music Organizations
Institute of Music
Purpose – This international study explores
managerial perceptions of new product development (NPD) in large music
organisations. It particularly focuses on the degree to which NPD
should be driven by customer insight and integrating audience
preferences (customer orientation), or artistic conviction, leadership
and artistic insight (product orientation). Marketing leaders, Artistic
leaders and CEOs were interviewed to determine the perspective each
group brings, and the way it manifests in terms of goals and
priorities, perceptions of process, and interfunctional relations. This
is a PhD project being prepared under the supervision of marketing and
arts management academics in the Business and Law Faculty at Deakin
Design/methodology/approach - This is a qualitative, interpretative
study that explores the perceptions of senior managers in the USA, UK
and Australia. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with 24
senior managers in London, New York and Sydney. Half of the executives
were working in major commercial record companies and half in nonprofit
music organisations (such as orchestras). One third of the participants
were Artistic leaders, one third Marketing leaders, and one third CEOs.
Research participants included industry leaders who had managed several
Findings – the study found evidence that product and
customer orientations contributed to notable differences in perspective
between Artistic and Marketing leaders, and contributed to perceived
tension between the two functions, in both the commercial and nonprofit
contexts. The study highlights the subtle and complex nature of
integrating the voice of the artist and the voice of the audience into
the NPD process in an arts context. There is some evidence that
distinctive functional perspectives are being eroded.
Originality/value – this international study
provides a rare insight into perceptions of music managers in relation
to NPD. It raises issues of relevance to other commercial creative
industries such as design and fashion, and has relevance for research
examining the reconciliation of aesthetic and market imperatives, and
the growing professionalisation of marketing practice in arts and
entertainment. In terms of practical implications, it makes explicit
and conscious managerial experiences that may be implicit, personal and
unstated. It provides insights which can assist interfunctional
Keywords – product orientation, customer orientation, marketing
department, artistic department, Artist & Repertoire Department,
new product development, music organisation
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